During the Civil War years, the Cherokee Nation divided into Northern and Southern factions. The National Council was dismissed and John Ross was in Philadelphia. Both sides attempted to conduct business when necessary. Temporary Chiefs were chosen to lead. For a time, Stand Watie assumed the title of Chief for the Southern Cherokees.
Major Thomas Peggs, 1862 – 63
Smith Christie, 1863 Lewis Downing, 1864 – 66
Confederate Chiefs: John Spears
Samuel McDaniel Taylor