“American Indian men are 1.6 times more likely than African American men and 1.5 times more likely than white men to die from cancers of the urinary system (68).”
Introduction and National Statistics
The Cherokee Nation Comprehensive Cancer Control plan has chapters devoted to five major cancer sites: lung and bronchus, breast, colorectal, cervical, and prostate. This chapter addresses the remaining cancer sites that are not addressed in other chapters.
For the purpose of this report, “all other” cancer sites will include the sites listed in Table I. This is a diverse group of malignancies, which occur relatively infrequently, in the general population. The national incidence and mortality trends for each of these cancer sites have remained stable over the past three decades, with the exception of a steady decline in the rates of uterine, oropharyngeal, and stomach cancers, and a progressive increase in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (68). The increased incidence of the latter two sites is likely due to environmental factors such as hepatitis C infection (68). The incidence of each of these cancer sites is fairly uniform among various ethnicities, with the exception of an increased incidence of liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancers in Pacific Islanders and Asian Americans (68), and a higher incidence of primary gall bladder cancer in American Indians (70).
The healthcare system for the Cherokee Nation consists of health care centers, community outreach, medical clinics that are tribally operated, as well as Indian Health Service facilities such as the W.W. Hastings Indian Hospital and Claremore Indian Hospital. Medical care, which is beyond the scope of this system, is referred to outside facilities, through contract health service (CHS) funding. This report summarizes the risk factors and prevention, screening, diagnosis, management, and preliminary figures on cases of “all other” cancer sites in the CNTJSA healthcare system.
Table 5 - All other cancer sites as defined by the Cherokee Nation Cancer
Registry with number of cases reported from 1997-2001.
|ALL OTHER SITES
|(excludes lung & bronchus, breast, prostate, cervix uteri, colon & rectosigmoid junction)
||Number of Cases
|Lip, Oral Cavity, & Pharynx
|Respiratory System & Intrathoracic Organs
|Bones, Joints & Articular Cartilage
|Hematopoietic & Reticuloendothelial Systems
|Peripheral Nerves & Autonomic Nervous System
|Retroperitoneum & Peritoneum
|Connective, Subcutaneous & Other Soft Tissues
|Female Genital Organs, excluding Cervix Uteri
|Male Genital Organs
|Eye, Brain & Other Parts of Central Nervous System
|Thyroid & Other Endocrine Glands
|Other and Ill Defined Sites
|Unknown Primary Site