All Other Sites


“American Indian men are 1.6 times more likely than African American men and 1.5 times more likely than white men to die from cancers of the urinary system (68).”
Introduction and National Statistics
The Cherokee Nation Comprehensive Cancer Control plan has chapters devoted to five major cancer sites: lung and bronchus, breast, colorectal, cervical, and prostate. This chapter addresses the remaining cancer sites that are not addressed in other chapters. 
For the purpose of this report, “all other” cancer sites will include the sites listed in Table I. This is a diverse group of malignancies, which occur relatively infrequently, in the general population. The national incidence and mortality trends for each of these cancer sites have remained stable over the past three decades, with the exception of a steady decline in the rates of uterine, oropharyngeal, and stomach cancers, and a progressive increase in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (68). The increased incidence of the latter two sites is likely due to environmental factors such as hepatitis C infection (68). The incidence of each of these cancer sites is fairly uniform among various ethnicities, with the exception of an increased incidence of liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancers in Pacific Islanders and Asian Americans (68), and a higher incidence of primary gall bladder cancer in American Indians (70).
The healthcare system for the Cherokee Nation consists of health care centers, community outreach, medical clinics that are tribally operated, as well as Indian Health Service facilities such as the W.W. Hastings Indian Hospital and Claremore Indian Hospital. Medical care, which is beyond the scope of this system, is referred to outside facilities, through contract health service (CHS) funding. This report summarizes the risk factors and prevention, screening, diagnosis, management, and preliminary figures on cases of “all other” cancer sites in the CNTJSA healthcare system. 
   Table 5 - All other cancer sites as defined by the Cherokee Nation Cancer            
                                Registry with number of cases reported from 1997-2001.


(excludes lung & bronchus, breast, prostate, cervix uteri, colon & rectosigmoid junction) Number of Cases
Lip, Oral Cavity, & Pharynx 37
Digestive Organs 149
Respiratory System & Intrathoracic Organs 26
Bones, Joints & Articular Cartilage 9
Hematopoietic & Reticuloendothelial Systems 86
Skin 53
Peripheral Nerves & Autonomic Nervous System 1
Retroperitoneum & Peritoneum 7
Connective, Subcutaneous & Other Soft Tissues 11
Female Genital Organs, excluding Cervix Uteri 100
Male Genital Organs 10
Urinary Tract 132
Eye, Brain & Other Parts of Central Nervous System 38
Thyroid & Other Endocrine Glands 27
Other and Ill Defined Sites 4
Lymph Nodes 45
Unknown Primary Site 61
Total 796

Comprehensive Cancer Control Plan

The Cherokee Nation Comprehensive Cancer Control (CNCCC) Project assists in the development of networks and collaboration that produce an infrastructure for a comprehensive approach to cancer within the Cherokee Nation. Since 2003, coalition members and partners have come together to discuss the burden of cancer in Cherokee Nation. Coalition members and partners include local, regional, state and national representatives committed to identifying areas of cancer concern, planning interventions, prioritizing greatest areas of identified need, and then implementing identified strategies and/or providing needed resources. This is the second edition of the Cherokee Nation Comprehensive Cancer Control Plan and will serve, like the first, as an information resource for health care professionals and community members, as well as a tool for the Cherokee Nation Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition and its respective entities. The coalition is committed to the process of enhancing infrastructure for comprehensive cancer control in the Cherokee Nation with the ultimate goal of reducing morbidity and mortality among the Cherokee community.